Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.) taught the authority of the thinking individual, in contrast to the collectivist ideals of his friend Plato. Individuals have their own ability to reason, according to Artistotle, with the ultimate human goal being their own happiness in accordance with moral and intellectual virtue.
Aristotle had to flee Athens fearing the fate of the previously executed Socrates (470 – 399 B.C.) Both philosophers were charged with “impiety.”
Much more on Aristotle from Stefan Molyneux’s podcast The Truth About Aristotle.