1957 Civil Rights Bill
The Black Family Is Struggling, and It’s Not Because of Slavery
1921 President Warren G. Harding (R) advocated passage of anti-lynching law. (failed in Congress)
“Republican Party Assures a Friendliness to Best Interest of the Race,” The Negro Star [Wichita, KA], October, 7, 1921.
Reviewed Work: Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR by Nancy J. Weiss (Review by David Levering Lewis)
1932: 2/3 blacks voted for Hoover
Blacks still slightly Republican
1952 1956 1960 1964
all voters 45 42 50 61
White 43 41 49 59
Black 79 61 68 94
Black vote in 1932
71% for Democrats, 28% for Republicans
Clinton’s praise for Eugenics
Margaret Sanger and Planned Parenthood
Page 3: In 1956, the African-American vote was not a settled question; it was up for grabs.
Nancy J. Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press 1983)
Thurber Timothy, Republicans and Race: The GOP’s Frayed Relationship with African Americans (Lawrence, KA: The University Press of Kansas, 2013), 76.
The Truman administration’s policies solidified black support for the Democrats.
In 1948, Truman sent a package of civil rights measures to Congress, including a compulsory FEPC, an anti-poll tax, and anti-lynching legislation, a commission to investigate racial issues; and a bill to end discrimination in interstate transportation, which a Republican controlled Congress did not pass. Later in 1948, he issued an executive order desegregating the military. Truman’s emphatic stance for the first time made the Democratic Party the party of black civil rights. Republican allusions to their historic alliance with blacks lacked the persuasiveness of the tangible benefits that the Democrats had brought.
1960 MLK arrested after a sit-in. Nixon didn’t think proper to intervene
Bobby Kennedy, a lawyer, called judge to get him released exerting political power.
Two million pamphlets titled, “‘No Comment’ Nixon Versus a Candidate With a Heart, Senator Kennedy,” were distributed in black churches. Never mind that in 1956 Nixon revealed he was an honorary member of the NAACP. Or that Nixon pushed for passage of the ’57 civil rights bill in the Senate. Or that Time magazine wrote that Nixon’s support for civil rights incurred the wrath of one of his segregationist opponents, Sen. Richard Russell, D-Ga., who sarcastically called Nixon the NAACP’s “most distinguished member.”
January 23, 1964, the Twenty-fourth Amendment ended the Poll Tax.
1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
On June 19, exactly one year after President Kennedy’s proposal, the compromise bill passed the Senate by a vote of 73 to 27. House approval followed, and on July 2 President Johnson signed the bill into law.
Freedmen’s Bureau established black schools and colleges, but Andrew Johnson (D) vetoed bureau, but Republican Congress overrode it.
General Howard, Commissioner of Freedmen’s Bureau directed resources to it
1867 first students
1879 Howard University Congress funded Howard University
1936: FDR makes speech there promising more:
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Andrew Johnson (D) vetoed it but Republican Congress overturned veto
1875 Civil Rights Act
Charles Sumner, Republican introduces, Republican President Grant signs.
Civil War deaths
Robert Kennedy wiretapping of Martin Luther King Jr.
History by James Taylor: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R44dKDhR33U
1852: Frederick Douglass: Constitution “entirely hostile to the existence of slavery.”
3/5 clause dealt with representation, not the worth of the individual, to prevent South from having South getting more representatives to Congress.
Additional Robert Moton information
Examining Black Loyalty to Democrats
Republican Winthrop Rockefeller elected governor of Arkansas
Inaugural address: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWTH3WqX6GE
Black vote: https://books.google.com/books?id=W09OtCyHMI4C&pg=PA101&lpg=PA101&dq=Black+vote+for+Winthrop+Rockefeller&source=bl&ots=QoXVVNK36O&sig=GvFyC-5Fa0IzALFQS5NztmhtI6k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq_bmSge_NAhVQ7WMKHYmZCMQ4ChDoAQgbMAA#v=onepage&q=Black%20vote%20for%20Winthrop%20Rockefeller&f=false
Arkansas school battle in Little Rock, Arkansas
1954 Segregation overturned
Eisenhower on Civil Rights
South history of people switching parties to stay in power
Democrats ignored Civil War results
Timeline of U.S. race history
Employment status by race and sex